Capital of California, and commercial metropolis of the W. coast of America; occupies the NE. corner of a tongue of land stretching between the Pacific and San Francisco Bay, which, with San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay--extensions to the N.--forms a handsome land-locked sheet of water 65 m. long, communicating with the ocean by Golden Gate Strait; has practically sprung into existence since the discovery of gold in 1847, and is now a spacious and evenly laid-out city, with every modern convenience--electric light, cable tramways, etc.; many of the dwelling-houses are of wood, but marble and granite give dignity to Government buildings, hotels, theaters, etc.; there is a remarkable number of religious sects; has a fine park, many free schools, a number of colleges, and a university; as the western terminus of the great continental railroads and outlet for the produce of a rich wheat district it has a large shipping trade; important industries are shipbuilding, whale-fishing, sugar-refining, iron-works, etc.
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