With the liturgical cope may be classed the red mantle, which from the 11th century to the close of the middle ages formed, with the tiara, the special symbol of the papal dignity. The "immantatio" was the solemn investiture of the new pope immediately after his election, by means of the "cappa rubea," with the papal powers. This ceremony was of great importance. In the contested election of 1159, for instance, though a majority of the cardinals had elected Cardinal Roland, the defeated candidate Cardinal Octavian, while his rival was modestly hesitating to accept the honor, seized the "pluviale" and put it on his own shoulders hastily, upside down; and it was on this ground that the council of Pavia in 1160 based their declaration in favor of Victor, and anathematized Alexander. The "immantatio" fell out of use during the papal exile at Avignon and was never restored.
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